How the Stonehaven train tragedy unfolded today
6.38am: Despite heavy rain overnight in the area, the train left Aberdeen station as normal, bound for Glasgow Queen Street.
6.53am: The train calls at Stonehaven station as normal, before departing and heading south.
Between 6.53am and 9.40am: After leaving Stonehaven, the train continued south, before encountering a landslip, caused by torrential rain.
It began to return north to Stonehaven, initially remaining on the southbound line before crossing at Carmont onto the northbound line. It then hit a second landslip and derailed while returning to Stonehaven.
9.40am: First reports of the incident were received by Police Scotland at 9.40am, but it is unclear if there was a delay between the derailment and it being reported.
There remains a gap of several hours between the train leaving Stonehaven and the derailment being reported to police.
Network Rail Scotland told MailOnline the exact timeline will emerge as the picture of events becomes clearer.
9.49am: Network Rail Scotland reports that a landslip on the same line at Carmont means that services are no longer running in the area.
The train driver who died after a ScotRail passenger service derailed and crashed down an embankment near Aberdeen has tonight been named.
The victim, identified locally as Brett McCullough, was killed alongside the conductor and a passenger when the train came off the tracks in an area hit by major flooding at Carmont, near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire.
Dramatic photographs showed the scale of devastation with a further six people taken to hospital after the crash at 9.40am. At least 30 emergency vehicles and an air ambulance were sent to the scene.
Mr McCullough, 45, was described by his devastated colleagues as a ‘lovely man’ who has worked in the railways for ‘about six years.’
The father lives around 15 minutes from the site of the crash, the Daily Record reported.
His wife Stephanie confirmed her husband had died in the derailment at their family home in Drumlithie today.
The Class 43 Inter7City train is said to have had six crew members and six passengers on board what was the 6.38am departure from Aberdeen to Glasgow Queen Street, which called at Stonehaven at 6.53am.
The train is believed to have stopped south of Carmont having seen a landslip. It is then believed to have returned north, initially on the southbound line, before crossing over to the northbound line at Carmont – and then hit a second landslip and derailed.
It comes after severe flooding in the area overnight which led to flash flooding in Aberdeen and widespread disruption across ScotRail following thunderstorms.
The Scottish Government had reinstated local lockdown restrictions in Aberdeen a week ago after a spike in coronavirus cases, meaning the number travelling was significantly lower than normal, it is understood.
Rail industry sources said the train stopped due to a landslip and moved back along the line when it crashed into another landslip.
The train was made up of a locomotive and four carriages. It is thought the locomotive and three carriages derailed, and slid down the embankment. The Aslef train drivers’ union saying it then caught fire.
The Queen has sent a message of condolence following the rail crash in Stonehaven, saying ‘it was with great sadness that I heard of the train derailment’ and that the entire Royal Family ‘join me in sending our thoughts and prayers to the families of those who have died and those who have been injured’.
A Sepa spokeswoman said that between the hours of 6 and 10am today, 79mm of rain was recorded at the Sepa rain gauge at Dunnotter (Stonehaven).
British Transport Police (BTP) said those pronounced dead at the scene near Stonehaven include the train’s driver, and the RMT union confirmed that one of those who lost their life in the incident was the train conductor.
Network Rail tweeted a video filmed in the same area minutes after the incident at 9.49am, showing flooding on the line and saying that trains could not run.
Dramatic video footage showed smoke billowing from the area today with at least seven ambulances on the scene alongside police cars and fire engines.
The train driver who died after a ScotRail passenger service derailed and crashed down an embankment near Aberdeen has tonight been named locally as Brett McCullough (pictured)
Three people have died after a ScotRail service derailed and crashed down an embankment in Aberdeenshire today
Derailed carriages are seen at the scene of a train crash near Stonehaven in northeast Scotland on August 12
Flames are pictured coming out of one of the carriages following the accident near Stonehaven this morning
A Major Emergency involving fire and ambulance crews after a train derailed near Stonehaven in Scotland, August 12
Emergency services work near the scene of a derailed passenger train, near Stonehaven, Scotland, August 12
An aerial view of the ScotRail train derailment which took place on the Aberdeen-Dundee line this afternoon
Based on the smoke rising from the scene, the train appears to have derailed near to a bend in the tracks close to Carmont. The portion of railway has rivers running alongside and under it in some areas.
Emergency services are using a field just north-west of the tracks to base their response. The tracks are flanked by thick vegetation, with woodland to the south-east.
Meanwhile it has emerged Network Rail was warned about the network’s resilience to severe weather just four weeks before the derailment, in an annual health and safety report by the Office of Rail and Road (ORR).
The report said there were six times more flooding events on Britain’s railways in 2019-20 than during the previous 12 months. It also noted a spike in landslips, demonstrating the ‘vulnerability’ of the network.
Following today’s news, Network Rail chief executive Andrew Haines is cutting short a family holiday in Italy and will fly back to the UK tonight. He will visit the crash site tomorrow. It comes as:
- Unions called this morning’s accident a ‘tragedy’ and RMT officials confirmed it was now a ‘rescue operation’;
- Today marks the first time a train driver has been killed in a crash on UK railways since November 2004;
- Nearby hospital Aberdeen Royal Infirmary announced a major incident after reports of ‘serious injuries’;
- Local MP Andrew Bowie said the flooding situation had been ‘really bad’ in the area before the crash;
- The NHS set up a ‘welcome centre’ at Midstocket Church in Aberdeen for those impacted by what happened;
- Transport Secretary Grant Shapps said he was still waiting for a clearer picture of the ‘very tragic’ incident.
Mick Lynch, RMT assistant general secretary, said: ‘The confirmation that there have been three fatalities in the Stonehaven derailment, including the driver and one of our conductor members, is the most dreadful news.
‘This trade union’s thoughts are with the families, colleagues and friends of those who have lost their lives in this tragedy.
A train carriage sits on the ground after the ScotRail service derailed near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire this morning
Fire rescue crews respond after the ScotRail train came off the tracks near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire this afternoon
It has been claimed the Class 43 Inter7City train had three crew members and six passengers on board when it crashed today
Smoke is seen billowing from the scene of a train crash near Stonehaven in Scotland after the derailment this morning
The train was the 6.38am departure from Aberdeen to Glasgow Queen Street, which called at Stonehaven at 6.53am
‘RMT will unite to provide support, assistance and solidarity at this distressing time.
‘Safety on the railway has to be an absolute priority and this union will be working with the various agencies to establish the facts behind this disaster which has sent shock waves right throughout our industry.’
Speaking outside Stonehaven Police Station, Chief Inspector Brian McAleese said the Crown Office will direct the investigation.
Prime Minister Boris Johnson has said the fatal train derailment in Aberdeenshire must ‘never happen again’ as he joined Scottish First Minister Nicola Sturgeon in paying tribute to the victims.
The PM also called for a probe into the impact of ‘substantial rainfall on vulnerable infrastructure’ amid fears the crash, which killed three people, was caused by a landslip due to torrential rain.
Mr Johnson said today: ‘I am saddened to learn of the very serious incident in Aberdeenshire and my thoughts are with all of those affected. My thanks to the emergency services at the scene.’
The accident is the first time in more than 13 years that a passenger or member of staff has been killed in a crash – after a woman died and 89 other people were injured in a Virgin Trains derailment in Cumbria in February 2007.
It comes as homes were flooded, streets turned into rivers and properties were set on fire by lightning strikes as Britain’s heatwave was interrupted today by thunderstorms and a month’s worth of rain in just three hours.
Scotland was hit by 17,000 lightning strikes in just 12 hours, as a landslide shut a road in Fife and there was a major outage at an exchange in Edinburgh affecting 100,000 customers’ broadband on BT, EE and Plusnet.
Communities further south also face flash flooding today and tomorrow with further intense thunderstorms expected to inundate parts of Southern England with up to three inches of rain today – about a month’s average.
The RMT union confirmed it is a ‘rescue operation’ and nearby hospital Aberdeen Royal Infirmary reported a major incident
Police officers at the scene of the major train accident near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire this afternoon
Network Rail tweeted a video filmed in the Carmont area minutes after the derailment incident at 9.49am, showing flooding on the line and saying that trains could not run
Video posted to Twitter at 9.49am by Network Rail Scotland showed a landslip on the track at Carmont, believed to be close to the scene of the crash which took place at 9.40am
Stonehaven is served by ScotRail trains heading north to Aberdeen and south to Edinburgh and Glasgow. It is also a calling point between Montrose and Inverurie.
Richard Clinnick, the news editor of Rail magazine, tweeted today: ‘The front power car and all four of ScotRail set HA22 went down the embankment near Stonehaven. The ScotRail IC7 set was returning north on the Down Main having encountered a landslip further south when the accident happened.
First driver to be killed in a crash on Britain’s railways since 2004
The last time a train driver was killed in a crash on Britain’s railways was at Ufton Nervet, Berkshire, in November 2004, the Office of Rail and Road said.
A passenger train is seen on November 7, 2004 after ploughing into a car at a level crossing and flying off the rails on a stretch of track by Ufton Nervet in Berkshire, 40 miles west of London
Seven people died when a London to Plymouth First Great Western train collided with a car that had been deliberately driven onto a level crossing.
Brian Drysdale, 48, who was driving the car which was hit
Those killed included the driver of the car – chef Brian Drysdale, 48, of Reading, Berkshire – and the driver of the train, Stanley Martin, 54, from Torquay, Devon.
A train driver died in an accident at a depot in Tyseley, West Midlands, in December last year, but he was not driving a train at the time.
The man was hit by another train shortly after leaving his cab.
The train driver, Stanley Martin, 54, also died. He is pictured with his wife Deborah and children James and Louise in 1993
‘Incident log suggests three crew members and six passengers on board. At least one Mk 3 was on fire.’
Philip Sherratt, editor of magazine Modern Railways, said: ‘It looks like the key cause of this accident is likely to have been some kind of landslip or earthworks failure, which is probably going to be attributable to the severe weather, and that’s obviously something that the railways are going to have to deal with.
‘During the storms back in February and March, particularly in the South East of England, there were several quite severe landslips and you had routes closed for a matter of weeks requiring repair.
‘If you look back ten years that’s not something that we really saw very much so I think there has definitely been a noticeable change in the frequency of these kinds of incidents and some are easier to deal with than others.
‘When you look back at something like the Dawlish incident in 2014 when the sea wall caved in and they rebuilt the whole thing and got the railway back up and open again, Network Rail’s response to that sort of thing is usually very good. But yes we are seeing a lot more of it.’
West Aberdeenshire and Kincardine MP Andrew Bowie said the local hospital had declared a major incident, adding: ‘It’s obviously a terrible situation, a train derailment, the emergency services are on the scene.
‘I’ve already spoken to Grant Shapps, who has spoken to Network Rail and the British Transport Police who are obviously investigating and assisting. I am aware that Aberdeen Royal Infirmary has declared a major incident.’
Mr Bowie said he had been in Stonehaven surveying the flood damage earlier today. He said: ‘The situation was really bad this morning, the River Carron, the main river which flows through it, had burst its banks and the heavy rain had caused flooding in the centre of Stonehaven and lots of the side streets leading off it.
‘Luckily, the water receded incredibly quickly and the river has peaked and is going down. Obviously none of us expected there to be such a serious incident as a rail derailment at the same time, but it just goes to show how damaging the bad weather can be.’
He added: ‘I don’t think speculation is helpful at this stage. We obviously don’t know why the derailment took place, but obviously we have suffered terrible weather here.’
Speaking before First Minister’s Questions today, Ms Sturgeon said a major incident has been declared.
She said that, although ‘details are still emerging’, there are ‘early reports of serious injuries’, adding: ‘My immediate thoughts and the thoughts of those across the chamber are with all those involved.’
The Scottish Government’s resilience room was made operational, and the First Minister was due to convene a meeting this afternoon.
Scottish Conservative leader in Holyrood Ruth Davidson also expressed her party’s sympathies with those involved in the derailment. She said: ‘May I add the thoughts of my party to those already been expressed regarding the incident in Stonehaven today.
‘It is clear that this incident is serious and it will have affected a number of families across Scotland. We think of them at this time and also those emergency workers who are currently in attendance.’
Labour leader Sir Keir Starmer added: ‘My thoughts are with everyone involved in the serious incident in Aberdeenshire. Thank you to all the emergency services.’
Rescue workers at the scene of the incident in Aberdeenshire this afternoon as emergency services respond today
West Aberdeenshire and Kincardine MP Andrew Bowie said the local hospital had declared a major incident, adding: ‘It’s obviously a terrible situation, a train derailment, the emergency services are on the scene’
Emergency services attend the scene of a train derailment in Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire, this afternoon
A police officer walks along the tracks near the scene of the derailed passenger train near Stonehaven in Scotland today
Emergency services on the scene in Aberdeenshire this afternoon following the train derailment near Stonehaven
The air ambulance is involved in the emergency services’ response in Aberdeenshire this afternoon
Smoke is pictured billowing from the area after the train came off the tracks today close to the old Carmont railway station
Police officers near to the scene in Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire, where the train derailed at about 9.40am this morning
Emergency vehicles and personnel at Carmont crossing, where they are accessing the train line from the road this afternoon
A police officer at a cordon at Carmont crossing, south of the scene near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire today
Emergency services attend the scene of the train derailment near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire today
A rescue helicopter of the Coastguard is seen near the scene of a derailed passenger train in Carmont this afternoon
Mick Lynch, the assistant general secretary of the Rail, Maritime and Transport union said: ‘RMT is aware of the major incident at Stonehaven and our reps are liaising directly at senior level with both Scotrail and Network Rail.
Network Rail was warned about the impact of landslips just a month ago
Network Rail was warned about the network’s resilience to severe weather just four weeks before the Aberdeenshire derailment.
An annual health and safety report by the Office of Rail and Road (ORR) said there were six times more flooding events on Britain’s railways in 2019-20 than during the previous 12 months. It also noted a spike in landslips, demonstrating the ‘vulnerability’ of the network.
The ORR found Network Rail’s plans to address climate change and extreme weather are ‘not keeping up with the frequency and severity of these events’.
Speaking when the report was published last month, HM chief inspector of railways Ian Prosser said: ‘The last year saw significant increases in flooding, earthwork failures and trains striking trees on the line, which had a big impact on the number of delays on the network.
‘It is so important that the sector employs best practice if we are to meet all the pressures on the network in the future and to make sure the railway plays its full role on climate change and reducing carbon emissions.’
In its response, Network Rail said the railway was designed for a temperate climate and is ‘challenged’ by prolonged periods of high and low temperatures, storms and floods.
It added: ‘Our climate is changing and we’re seeing more and more of these types of incidents. We are acutely aware they must be addressed and we have drawn up comprehensive plans to do so. There is no quick fix but we will continue to review the way the railway operates in extreme weather and build resilience into all of our plans.’
Philip Sherratt, editor of magazine Modern Railways, said an increasing number of landslips are ‘something that the railways are going to have to deal with’.
He said: ‘During the storms back in February and March, particularly in the south-east of England, there were several quite severe landslips and you had routes closed for a matter of weeks requiring repair.
‘If you look back 10 years that’s not something that we really saw very much so I think there has definitely been a noticeable change in the frequency of these kind of incidents and some are easier to deal with than others.’
‘Our priority at this time is to support our members, their colleagues and their families and to do all that we can to assist the rescue operation which RMT members are currently involved in.
‘The facts behind this incident will need to be established in due course but at this stage we are focused on support and assistance and our thoughts are with all those impacted by this tragedy.’
Transport Salaried Staffs’ Association general secretary Manuel Cortes added: ‘Our thoughts are with those caught up in this derailment, their loved ones and the emergency services and our members who are now involved in a rescue operation.
‘Our union has had concerns about the amount of hours that some of our members who maintain have been doing. However, it’s far too early to speculate whether this may have been a contributing factor to this morning’s incident.’
Transport Secretary Grant Shapps said he was still waiting for a clearer picture of the ‘very, very tragic’ incident at Stonehaven.
He told the BBC: ‘My thoughts go out to the families, the friends, all those who have been involved in what’s happened today.
‘We are still waiting for a clearer picture in terms of the numbers of those involved, indeed the numbers who may have lost their lives as well.’
He also told the BBC: ‘There has been some very extreme weather and concerns about landslips.
‘One of the things I have done today is convene emergency meetings in order to ensure that we look into that specifically along the line in other locations, just to make certain, while leaving the Rail Accident Investigation Board to do their job in the site itself.’
Mr Shapps added: ‘We know that derailments, thankfully – and certainly lives lost – are very rare. You have to go back to 2007 to see the last life lost in this way.’
Asked about reports the driver is among the dead, Mr Shapps said: ‘I don’t want to pre-empt information which will come out from the police and other sources. It’s clearly a very serious incident.’
Mr Shapps said he would be visiting the scene of the incident tomorrow. ‘I will be going there tomorrow to understand the situation first hand and offer every possible assistance,’ he told the BBC.
A Scottish Ambulance Service spokesman said: ‘We currently have multiple resources in attendance at a train derailment near Stonehaven, including six ambulances, our special operations response teams, air ambulance, patient transport vehicles and the Scotstar emergency service. More information will follow when we have it.’
Rail regulator the Office of Rail and Road (ORR) sent an inspector, with a spokesman saying: ‘We’re aware of an incident involving a train derailment near Stonehaven. Emergency services are in attendance and an ORR inspector will be attending.
‘We will work with Rail Accident Investigation Branch, British Transport Police and the emergency services to investigate the full circumstances of what has happened.’
Emergency personnel are removing wooden supports, so that emergency vehicles can access the train line from the road
A helicopter of Scotland’s Charity Air Ambulance is seen near the scene of the derailed passenger train this afternoon
Emergency personnel at Carmont crossing, where they are removing wooden supports this afternoon
A Coastguard vehicle at Carmont crossing, where they are accessing the train line from the road this afternoon
Emergency vehicles on the scene during the major incident involving fire and ambulance crews this afternoon
A police vehicle crosses the tracks near the scene of a derailed passenger train near Stonehaven this afternoon
Emergency service vehicles travel along the tracks near the scene of the derailed passenger train in Scotland today
Emergency services attend the scene of a train derailment in Stonehaven this afternoon
Emergency service vehicles travel along the tracks near the scene of the derailed passenger train in Stonehaven today
Emergency services attend the scene of the train derailment near Stonehaven in Scotland this afternoon
A still image taken from video footage shows smoke billowing from the scene of the train crash near Stonehaven today
Emergency services attend the scene of the train derailment near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire this afternoon
The air ambulance lands at the scene of the major train accident near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire this afternoon
Police officers at the scene of the major train accident near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire this afternoon
A British Transport Police spokesman said: ‘BTP were called to the line in Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire at 09.43am this morning following a report that a train travelling from Aberdeen to Glasgow Queen Street had derailed.
‘Officers remain on scene this afternoon alongside the ambulance service, fire brigade and colleagues from Police Scotland.
‘Very sadly despite the best efforts of paramedics, we can confirm that three people have been pronounced dead at the scene.
‘While formal identification is yet to take place, the driver of the train is very sadly believed to have died. His family have been informed and are being supported by specially trained family liaison officers.
‘Officers are continuing to work to inform the families of the other two people who sadly died. Six people have been taken to hospital to be treated for injuries, which thankfully are not believed to be serious.’
The air ambulance lands at the scene of the train accident near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire this afternoon
Emergency response teams are parked near the scene of a train crash by Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire this afternoon
A police officer walks in the area of the scene of a derailed passenger train near Stonehaven in Scotland this afternoon
A Coastguard rescue helicopter at the scene in Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire, following the derailment this afternoon
Emergency responders gather at the scene of a derailed passenger train near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire today
Firefighters and engines at the scene of the train derailment near Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire this afternoon
Emergency vehicles respond to the incident in Aberdeenshire which happened shortly before 10am this morning
Speaking before First Minister’s Questions today, Nicola Sturgeon (pictured) said a major incident has been declared
The incident happened on the Dundee-Aberdeen line at about 10am this morning
At least seven ambulances were on the scene alongside police cars and fire engines
BTP Chief Superintendent Eddie Wylie added: ‘This is a tragic incident and first and foremost our thoughts are with the families and friends of those who have very sadly died this morning.
‘We remain on scene alongside our emergency service colleagues, and a major incident operation has been underway. I would like to reassure the public that this was not a busy service, and from CCTV enquiries and witness statements we believe all passengers have been accounted for. However, once the area has been made safe then a full and thorough search will be conducted, which is likely to take some time.
‘I know many people will understandably have questions, and we will be working closely alongside the Rail Accident Investigation Branch and the Office of Rail and Road to establish the full circumstances of how the train came to derail.’
HM Chief Inspector of Railways Ian Prosser said: ‘We are saddened by today’s incident and our thoughts are with the families and friends of those affected.
‘ORR Inspectors are on site at Stonehaven, assisting in the preliminary investigation. We will work with other agencies, including the emergency services, to find out exactly what happened and identify the causes of this tragic incident.’
A Police Scotland spokesman said: ‘A report was received of a train having derailed near Stonehaven at 9.40am on Wednesday, August 12. Emergency services are currently in attendance and the incident is ongoing.’
A ScotRail spokesman said: ‘We’re assisting the emergency services with an incident near Stonehaven, and will provide more information when available.’
Flooding is pictured on a road in Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire, this morning, near to where the ScotRail train derailed
Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire was hit by major flooding today following severe thunderstorms overnight
Flooding at Stonehaven in Aberdeenshire this morning following severe thunderstorms, near where the train derailed
A flooded street in Stonehaven is pictured this morning on the same day of the train derailment nearby
A Network Rail spokesman said: ‘We are working alongside the emergency services to respond to an incident involving a train near Stonehaven.
This message was on a board at a London Underground station today in support of those affected by the incident
‘It is too early to confirm the exact nature and severity of the incident and more details will be made available once known.’
A Scottish Fire and Rescue Service spokesman said: ‘We were alerted at 9.47am on Wednesday August 12 to reports of an incident involving a train near Stonehaven, Aberdeenshire.
‘Operations Control has mobilised 12 appliances and a number of specialist resources to the scene as part of a multi-agency response. Crews remain in attendance.’
Paul Plummer, chief executive of the Rail Delivery Group, which represents the rail industry, said: ‘We are saddened to learn about the incident in Aberdeenshire today and our thoughts are with those affected.
‘While an investigation will follow, our current focus is to provide every support we can in the immediate response.’
A spokesman for the Maritime and Coastguard Agency said: ‘HM Coastguard was called at around 10.33am today to assist Police Scotland and the Scottish Ambulance Service with an incident near Stonehaven.
‘We are currently assisting as part of a multi-agency response and have sent coastguard rescue teams from Aberdeen, Stonehaven, Cruden Bay, Banff and Montrose along with a coastguard search and rescue helicopter from Prestwick.
‘Two coastal operations area commanders and four senior coastal operations officers are also at the scene. This is an ongoing incident.’
Earlier, ScotRail posted a message on Twitter shortly after 6.30am warning that services across Scotland would be disrupted due to ‘extremely heavy rain flooding’. A video shared on Facebook at 7.30am showed heavy flooding in Stonehaven.
How fatal crashes became an almost annual occurrence on Britain’s railways in the 1980s and 1990s
Britain’s railways are often heralded as being among the safest in Europe.
The Aberdeenshire accident is the first time in more than 13 years that a passenger or member of staff has been killed in a crash.
One woman died and 89 other people were injured when a Virgin Trains service derailed at 95mph on the West Coast Main Line in Grayrigg, Cumbria, in February 2007.
The 300-tonne Pendolino train from London to Glasgow came off the tracks due to a badly maintained and faulty set of points.
February 2007: One woman died and 89 other people were injured when a Virgin Trains service derailed at 95mph on the West Coast Main Line in Grayrigg, Cumbria
Network Rail, the firm responsible for the upkeep of the railways, accepted it was at fault and was fined £4 million over safety failures.
The last time a train driver was killed in a crash was at Ufton Nervet, Berkshire, in November 2004.
A total of seven people died when the First Great Western train hit a car deliberately parked on the tracks in a suicide attempt by the vehicle’s driver.
Fatal crashes on Britain’s rail network occurred almost every year during the 1980s and 1990s.
Thirty-five people were killed and 415 others were injured when three trains collided near Clapham Junction station in south London in December 1988.
December 1988: 35 people were killed and 415 others were injured when three trains collided near Clapham Junction station in London
An inquiry found the primary cause of the crash was incorrect wiring work which led to a signal failure.
Five people were killed and a further 88 were injured when two trains collided in Purley, south London, in March 1989.
One of the trains careered down an embankment into gardens below, trapping people on board for several hours.
The trains should have been two-and-a-half minutes apart but one of them went through a red light.
Five people died when two trains were involved in a head-on crash near Cowden, Kent, in October 1994 after one of them failed to stop at a red signal.
A crash between a passenger train and a freight train in Southall, west London, in September 1997 left seven people dead and 139 injured.
March 1989: Five people were killed and a further 88 were injured when two trains collided in Purley, south London
An investigation found it was primarily caused by driver error and faulty safety equipment.
In October 1999, two trains collided at high speed close to Paddington station, also in west London, killing 31 people, with a further 227 taken to hospital.
A series of inquiries found the crash was caused by a Thames Trains service going through a red signal.
Four people were killed and more than 70 were injured when a Leeds-bound express train derailed south of Hatfield station in Hertfordshire in October 2000.
Engineering company Balfour Beatty was condemned in a Health and Safety Executive report for failing to effectively manage the inspection and maintenance of the track.
The company was fined a record £10 million and Network Rail was fined £3.5 million for breaching safety rules in relation to the crash.